– Typhus is an acute bacterial infectious disease caused by the bacteria Salmonella Typhi. In Indonesia, people with typhus or typhoid fever is also called spread pretty much everywhere and found most of the year. The most commonly suffered by children aged 5 to 9 years. Lack of maintenance of cleanliness is the most frequent incidence of typhoid. Irregular eating patterns and eating unclean food can cause disease.


The disease is transmitted through contaminated food or drinks are typhoid germs. Feces containing the typhoid germ is polluting the water for drinking and for cooking and washing food. Can also be caused by food that is served by someone with typhoid latent (hidden) that is less personal hygiene while cooking.

A person can carry typhoid germs in pencernaanya channels without pain. This is called latent patients. Patients can transmit typhus is to many people, especially if he works in a serving of food for many people as a cook at the restaurant.

The disease is transmitted through water and food contaminated by urine and feces of patients. Transmission of the disease, especially typhus carried by flies and cockroaches. Source of transmission of typhoid fever does not always have people with typhoid fever. There are patients who have received treatment and recovered but in the urine and feces still contain bacteria. Patients are referred to as the carrier (carrier). Although no longer suffering from typhus, this person can still transmit the disease to others typhus. Transmission of typhoid fever can occur anywhere and at anytime, usually occurs through consumption of food from outside if the food or beverages consumed less clear.

Transmission can occur through the mouth, enters the body through contaminated food or water, into the holes, into lymphoid glands of the small intestine, then into the bloodstream. For 24 to 72 hours after the germs enter, though not cause symptoms, but the bacteria have reached the organs of the liver, gallbladder, spleen, bone marrow and kidneys. The incubation period of the disease an average of 7 to 14 days. Clinical manifestations in children are generally makes a lighter and more varied. Fever is the most constant symptom of all the clinical appearance.


In the first week of complaints and symptoms resembling an acute infectious disease in general, such as fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite, abdominal pain, diarrhea or even constipation (hard bowel movements) for several days. Body temperature increased, especially in the afternoon and evening. Sometimes the increase in body temperature is not too high but the patient felt extreme headache.

After the second week of the symptoms become more pronounced. High fever continues, malodorous breath, dry skin, dry hair, dry lips chapped / peeling, the tongue is covered with dirty white membrane, the tip and edges red and tremor. Enlarged liver or spleen palpable pain arises and flatulence. Patients appear severely ill with a mild disturbance of consciousness such as sleep position passive indifference (apathy), to severe (delirium, coma).

Severe typhoid fever gave bleeding complications, intestinal leakage (preforasi), infection of the lining of the intestines (peritonitis), seizure, bronkopnemoni and abnormalities in the brain (encephalopathy, meningitis). This disease can cause anemia from mild to moderate due to the effects of bacteria that suppress the bone marrow. Leukocytes can be decreased to less than 3.000/mm ³ and fever was found in phase.