– Diarrhea is a disease in which patients experience frequent bowel movements and still have excessive water content. Diarrhea is the most common cause of death for children under five worldwide and kills more than 1.5 million people per year. Until now, diarrhea remains a leading cause of stomach illness and death in infants and children. Current morbidity (morbidity) diarrhea in Indonesia is still at 195 per 1,000 population and this figure is the highest among ASEAN countries.
Diarrheal diseases are often caused outbreaks (Extraordinary Events) as well as by the number of cholera sufferers a lot in a short time. However, treatment of diarrhea edngan fast, accurate, and quality, mortality can be reduced to a minimum. In October 1992 discovered a new strain that is Vibrio Cholera kemudain 0139 replaced the El Tor strain of Vibrio Cholera in 1993 manghilang later in the year 1995 to 1996 (except in India and Bangladesh are still to be found). While E. Coli 0157 as the cause of bloody diarrhea and HUS (Haemolytic Uraemia Syndrome). Outbreaks have occurred in the United States, Japan, South Africa and Australia. As for Indonesia alone the two strains has not been detected.
There are also a negativ impact of diarrheal disease in infants and children, among others, is to inhibit the process of child development that could ultimately reduce the quality of life of children in the future. In the decade of 1950 s / d 1970 in developing countries (including Indonesia) is only about 20% of acute diarrhea etiology could be determined. At the time of acute diarrheal illness in the community (Indonesia), better known as “vomiting”. This disease has a horrible connotation and cause anxiety and panic citizens. If not treated immediately in a short time (± 48 hours) the patient will die.
Death is caused by loss of body fluids due to dehydration electrolyte. Later known that germs cause diarrhea and vomiting is Cholera Vibrio El-Tor biotype and in accordance with the name of the cause of the outbreak of the events that often occur at the time was more popular with the term El-Tor Cholera outbreak. Cholera outbreaks in Indonesia El-Tor was first known to occur in Makassar (Ujung Pndang) in the 60’s, by causing some deaths. Outbreaks of the disease is then known to occur in other regions in Indonesia.
Thanks to the rapid development of science and technology in the fields of microbiology, the discovery of new fields of etiology / causes diarrhea so keep popping broaden the spectrum of the etiology of acute diarrhea caused by microbes. Escherichia Coli Bacteria which at that time regarded as the microbes in the gut kemensal human family, it appeared that some strains of which are known to cause both acute diarrhea in infants, children, and adults.
Now it has been known for three group E. Coli as a cause of acute diarrhea, the entero Toxigenic E. Coli (ETEC), entero Pathogenic E. Coli (EPEC) and entero-invasive E. Coli (EIEC). Later in the decade of 1970 a / d 1980 had found some microbes.